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Essays should reflect critically on the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments made in the book, and comment on points of confusion (if any) or disagreement. The goal is two-fold: one, identify and explain the argument that the author is making, and two, provide your own argument about that argument. One of the key directions of these assignments is often to minimize summary—you are not writing a book report, but evaluating the author’s argument. 
Potential Points of Criticism
Sometimes it can seem intimidating to criticize a book or article; however, part of this exercise is to expose the fact that even though these authors are highly qualified, they are still advancing an argument and providing evidence—their aim is to persuade you that their argument is true, not to just present facts. Once you recognize that these authors are making arguments, you can analyze whether or not you find their argument compelling. Following are some possible questions you could ask yourself to evaluate the argument being presented:
· Theoretical questions: How does the author understand the situation? What is his/her theoretical background? How would this influence their view of the situation?
o If the author is a clear proponent of Western, liberal forms of democracy, for example, how will this influence his/her study of authoritarian states?
· Definitional questions: Are all the concepts in the text clear? Does the author define a concept vaguely to allow it to travel across different situations? If a concept can relate two seemingly different situations, is the concept meaningful?
o For example can we really compare the existing communist government in China to the communist government in the former Soviet Union?
· Evidence questions:
o Does the author’s evidence support their argument? Do they have enough specific evidence to prove the more general point?
§ For example, does the revolutionary government in Venezuela reflect a more general trend to the left in all of Latin America?
o Does the author underemphasize or ignore evidence that is contrary to their argument?
§ For example, is the argument compelling if it ignores an obvious exception—Can we really say that democracies are inherently peaceful given the 2003 Iraq invasion? 
o Is the evidence credible? Can you identify a bias in the evidence?
§ Was the study done by a political action committee, and environmental NGO, or a non-partisan research group? How might a group affiliation or funding influence the outcome of research?
· Implication/Policy relevance questions: What are the implications of this argument? Are those implications positive or negative? How has the author dealt with this issue?
o If Western modes of thinking are the only efficient path for economic development, what does this mean with societies that have different cultures and values?
· Other approaches:
o Is the author’s argument consistent throughout the book? Or, does the conclusion seem to offer a different argument than he/she presented in the introduction?
o Does the author’s background have important implications for their argument?
o Do the specific language choices of the author betray a certain ideology or bias, or frame the argument in a certain way?
Structuring a Critical Analysis Paper
Most critical analysis papers begin with a short summary of the work and then drive in to the argument. Since most of these paper assignments are short, it is important to be concise in all parts of your analysis. Writing an outline (and following it) is crucial to remain focused on your argument and avoid summary or irrelevant description. The following is a sample outline for a critical analysis paper: 
I. Introduction
a. Identify the work being criticized by:
i. Presenting the author’s purpose and/or argument
ii. And Previewing your argument
II. Short Summary of the work
a. Does not need to be comprehensive—present only what the reader (your professor) needs to know to understand your argument
III. Your argument
a. Your argument will likely involve a number of sub-arguments—mini-theses you use to prove your larger argument true. For example, if your thesis was that the author’s presumption that the world will soon face a “clash of civilizations” is flawed because he inadequately specifies his key concept, civilizations, you might prove this by
i. Noting competing definitions of civilizations
ii. Identifying how his examples do not meet the example of civilizations
1. Argue that civilization is so broad and non-specifc that it is not useful
b. This should be the bulk of the paper—Your professor wants to read your argument about the work, not a summary.
IV. Conclusion
a. Reflect on how you have proven your argument.
b. Point out the importance of your argument (beyond it being a requirement for passing the classJ )
c. Note potential avenues for additional research or analysis
Final Reminders
· These papers should be 5 pages, double spaced, 12-point font, Times New Roman or Cambria
· Make a cover page with your name, the date, CJS. 418, Critical Commentary; so your essay should start right at the top of the first page!
· Even though you are potentially only referring to one source, you still need to cite (as described in syllabus) your information. You may use any of the readings from class, including the text; no other resources may be used without permission from your professor first!
· Double-check the assignment to make sure you have covered all the points that your professor has asked. 

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