Age of Imperialism

Imperialism (1850~1914) * Imperial refers to * Empire * Royalty * Extending powers * Age of Imperialism (http://www. smplanet. com/teaching/imperialism/#SAW1) * Main Events * 1823 – Monroe Doctrine reflected special U. S. interest in Americas * 1850 – European trading with Africa becomes well established * 1852 – Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) proclaimed himself emperor of France * 1869 – Suez Canal opens (Egypt) 1871 – Bismark completed unification of German Empire * 1884~1885 – Berlin Congress sets rules for African colonization * 1898 * United States acquired Philippines, annexed Hawaii * United States won Spanish-American War * 1899 Boer War began in South Africa * 1910 – Mexican Revolution began * 1914 * Most of Africa is under European control * World War I began * 1918 World War I ended Industrialism Imperialism Nationalism Industrialism * Profit maximization England – Factory system * Resources from colonies * Mass production goods = sell & export to the colonies * Profit maximization * Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European countries * Competed new markets for own goods * Saw Africa as a source for materials and a market * Colonial power seized lots of areas in Africa during the 19th and 20th centuries * Imperialism * Colonization * World market * England as the world power in the 1820s. * Power – World standing “the sun never sets on the England Empire” * Usually through military might and sometimes economics * Seizure of a territory by a stronger country * * Throughout out most Africa, stronger countries dominated in many areas * * Europeans ignored the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states * * African nations continue to fell the effects of the colonial presence more than 100 years later * Europeans established colonies. * 1823 Monroe Doctrine A reaction to the independence Latin America+ Mexico+Central America   * * After 1823, only Bolivia is still under pish control * It warned European nations that continuing to be in the Americas is going to be seen as an act of aggression   * Claimed to help the Latin Americas, but it actually restrained and threatened them to follow rules from the United States * The United States had the right to intervene problems in the western hemisphere * White Man’s Burden * Nationalism and social Darwinism Racist patronizing that preached that “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” people in other pars of the world  * Germany and Russia especially used imperialistic drives to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home and to create a false sense of national unity. Causes of Imperialism * Nationalism * British colonized Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland * Colonists wanted their freedom (1800s) * To gain power, European nations compete for colonies and trade * European Migration Between 1815 and 1932 more than 60 million people left Europe * Migrants went primarily to European inhabited areas * North and South America * Australia * New Zealand * Siberia * European migration provided further impetus for Western expansion (Westernization) * More were poor from rural areas, though seldom from the poorest classes (due to oppressive land policies) * Economic Competition * Search for new markets and raw materials * Missionary works * more successful in African and Asian areas Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world * New military and naval bases to protect one’s interests against other European powers * British concerned by French and German land grabs in 1880s * might seal off their empires with high tariffs and restrictions * future economic opportunities might be lost * Increases tensions between the “haves” (British Empire) and the “have nots” (Germany & Italy) who came in latte to the Imperialist * Dr. David Livingston 1st white man to do humanitarian and religious work in south and central Africa Old & New Imperialism * Europe’s influence continued to expand in the 19th century, and for all the same old reasons * European imperialism became global in nature, with Britain the world leader (“The sun never sets on the British Empire”) * Contradictory: Many European nations explored nationalism, liberalism…  * Old Imperialism * 15th ~ 16th century * Didn’t penetrate into Africa or Asia * No substantial influences on lives of people European powers did not usually acquire territory except for Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil, but rather built a series of trading stations * Respected and frequently cooperated with local rulers in India, china, Japan, Indonesia, another areas where trade flourished between locals and european coastal trading centers * New Imperialism * A policy in which one country seeks to extend its authority by conquering other countries or by establishing economic and political dominance over other countries. European nations conquers with armies * New military and naval bases to protect their interest * Raising taxes to restrain land grab * 18th ~ 19th century * Influences over economic, political and socials lives of people * People were used to benefit the European  economies * Forms of Imperialism * Colony * A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power * Protectorate * A country of territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power * Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges * Economic Imperialism * An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interest tauter than other governments  Imperial Management Methods * Indirect Control * Local government officials used * Limited self-rule * Develop future leaders * Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules * Direct Control * Foreign officials brought in to rule * No self-rule Paternalism – Europeans governed people in a parietal way by providing for their needs but not giving them rights * Assimilation – based on the idea that in time, the local populations would adopt French culture and become like the French * Government institutions are based only on European style * Legacy of Colonial Rule * Positive * Colonization * Europeans control lands and people in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America * Reduced local warfare (variety in ethnic groups) * Humanitarians provided schools and hospitals (better living conditions) * Colonial Economics Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies * African products came to be valued on international market * Christianization * Christianity spreads to Africa, India and Asia * Negative * Africa lost its independence and its land * Contempt for the traditional culture and admiration of European life undermined stable societies and caused identity problems for Africans * Division of African continent * created problems that plagued African colonies during European occupation Africa 1880 Europeans controlled 10% of Africa (mainly on the coast) * Scramble for African Territory because of the discoveries of diamonds in South Africa * By 1914 Europeans controlled all Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia * late 1860s – Congo Sparks Interest * David Livingstone traveled with a group of Africans to central Africa to promote Christianity * 1871 Henry Stanley found Livingston (whom westerners thought to be dead) * his newspaper reports created European interest in Africa * Stanley sought aid of king of Belgium to dominate the Congo region. 1879 ~ 1882  Stanley signed treaties with local chief of the Congo River Valley * Gave King Leopold II of Belgium the control of these lands * He claimed that his motive in establishing colony was to abolish the slavery and promote Christianity * But he exploited Africans brutally (collect sap from rubber plants) * At least 10 million Congolese died due to his abuses * 1908 Belgian Government took over power of the colony * Belgian Congo (80 times larger than Belgium) This action alarmed France * Soon Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain claimed parts of Africa * Berlin Conference * 1884~1885 * 14 European Nations established the “rules” for conquest of Africa * PAPER PARTITION * Sponsored by Bismarck & Jules Ferry * Sought to precent conflict over imperialism * Coincided with German’s rise as an imperial power * Agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa * No African rulers were invited to attend these meetings * Factors promoting Imperialism in Africa European technical superiority * 1884 Maxim Gun (world’s 1st auto machine gun) * Invention of steam-boat, made it easy to travel (for Europeans) * Susceptible to malaria (disease carries by dense swarms of mosquitoes in Africa’s interior * 1829 perfection of drug protected Europeans from malaria * Various languages and cultures in Africa * Discouraged the unity in Africa * Africans, Dutch and British Clashed over South Africa for resources and lands * Zulus & British * 1816 Shaka, a Zulu chief created a large centralized state by isciplined warriors and good military organization * 1879 Zulu king Cetshwayo refused to dismiss the Zulu army * Not accepting British Rules * British invaded Zulu nation * July 1879 Battle of Ulundi * The Zulus lost the Battle and their Kingdom * 1887 Under British control * Boers & British in Cape * 1st Europeans settle in South Africa were the Dutch * 1625 Dutch came to the Cape of Good Hope * established way station for sailing between Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands * Those Dutch settlers were known as the Boers 1880s British took over the Cape Colony PERMANENTLY  * Boers clashed over British policy (land & slaves) * 1830s Great Trek * Boers moved to North in order to escape the British African Colonization & Independence * 1884 Western leaders met to divide Africa into colonial holdings * 1914 nearly all of Africa is under European controls * European imperial powers set national borders in Afirca without regard for local ethnic or political divisions 1898 Fashoda Incident * France & Britain nearly went to war over Sudan France backed down in the face of the Dreyfus Affair * Wanted to connect Cape to Cairo by railroads 1899 ~ 1902 The Boer War (South Africa War) * Boers blamed British bringing the “outsiders” into Africa (for minerals… diamonds and gold) * 1st modern “total” war * British countered by burning Boer lands and imprisoning women and children * Black South Africans were involved in the war * British won * 1910 Boer republics joined Union of South Africa, which was controlled by the British * Cecil Rhodes * Prime Minister of Cape Colony Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo (British wanted to control over the continent) * Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there after the diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal but rein controlled by Boers (Dutch settlers) * Kruger Telegram (1902) * Kaiser Wilhelm II (starter of WWI) * Congratulated Boers on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance * Anger swept through Britain and targeted at Germany Asia 1898 Spanish-American War * Mid-1890s – the United States had developed substantial business holdings in Cuba. It had an economic stake in the fate of the country. * Objected to the Spanish brutality. * Helped Cuban war for independence. * Lasted about four months. * U. S. forces launched their first attack not on Cuba but on the Philippine Islands  * Unprepared for a war on two fronts, the Spanish military quickly collapsed. * U. S. defeated Spain (took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii & Cuba) * 1901 – Cuba became an independent nation * BUT United States installed a military government and continued to exert control over Cuban affairs. -; caused tensions * American had become the dominate imperial power in Latin America 1898 ~ 1901 Boxer Rebellion * Anti-foreign pro to nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony in China * Took place against a background of serious drought and economic disruption in response to foreign influence * Opposing Imperialism and Christianity from the foreigners * June 20th A German minister stationed in China (Klemens Freiferr von Kettler) represented various countries’ going zongli yamen and demanded protection, is ambushed by the clear soldier on the way * Led to war 904 ~ 1905 Russo-Japanese War * Sino-Japanese War * Japanese Victory, China lost Manchuria * 1903 They had a war over Manchuria * Japan claimed they will recognize the right of Russian in Manchuria if Russian stayed out of Korea. Russian refused * Japan launched a surprise attaching on Russian ships at Manchuria, which this action resulted in Russo-Japanese War

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