Agriculture has been the major source of human survival and component of economic development worldwide. Its productivity increases efficiently due to factors including fertilizers utilization, hybrid strains development, and advance farm management practices (Trautmann, Porter, & Wagenet).
The most often studied contamination source in agriculture is usually related to organic matters such as animal manure, bedding, feed left-over, and animals’ corpses.
As a matter of fact, in United States, a study estimated that agriculture generates around 112 million of dry manure per year that results to the most abundant waste product of the industry, which is about 80, 000 lbs/year of swine-related manure per 1000 animal mass (Gaechter).
In these modern days, the water is a great factor in agriculture, animal farming, and irrigation. A study made by USDA and estimated on Agricultural Census that around 11 million of irrigated acres in 1997 were used to raise crops that were used for animal feed production.
Because of this, a large amount of water is lost in relation to irrigation and evaporation due to exposure to atmosphere; and only a fraction is used for purely vegetation production (Gaechter).
Some modern practices cause damage to soil and water resources, in environment as a whole. Among its impacts that affect agricultural productivity include soil erosion, excessive surface runoff (resulting to soil under-nutrition), and nutrient-lost in fertilizers due to chemical properties and reactions (Trautmann, Porter, & Wagenet).
Due to global warming, the industry also faces water conservation issue due to limited water supply especially in irrigation.
Due to some effects of modern agricultural practices to human and environment, it is recommended to utilize people-centered approach in projects of livestock development to reduce poverty, defend environmental sustainability, guarantee food security, and encourage animal welfare.
Moreover, the awareness in utilizing chemical products must be observed to protect the welfare of the environment, animals, and consumers.
1997 census of agriculture: United States Summary and State Data (AC97-A-51). (1999). Retrieved. from National Agricultural Statistics Service.
Gaechter, L. Environmental Implications of Modern Animal Agriculture: Save the Planet with your Fork. Retrieved May 6, 2007, from http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/gaechter.html
Trautmann, N. M., Porter, K. S., & Wagenet, R. J. Modern Agriculture: Its Effects on the Environment. Retrieved May 6, 2007, from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/facts-slides-self/facts/mod-ag-grw85.html
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