The hypothesis that personality characteristics directly influence physical health is a big part in health psychology and related fields (Smith, 2013). This information is often not dealt with completely when dealing with the insufficient attention to personality measurement. The ideal is that submission is a somewhat healthier stance than that of a dominate personality. The fear of rejections, negative evaluations and social anxieties are inversely associated with dominance.
So the studies on dominance provide statistically significant disconfirming evidence regarding interpersonal sensitivity and cardiovascular disease. This information has been presented in a clear conceptual model of potentially important personality traits related to health (Smith, 2013). There is no substantial evidence that there is interpersonal sensitivity predicts the infectious diseases or cardiovascular disease. There is many concerns about the positives and negatives of this study due to the potential of convincing individuals that they have no control in their own health.
The main purpose of this kind of study is to provide for useful tools. There is a certain amount of reading that is to be considered to be a potential issue as to if the personality characteristics directly influence the health of a person. A discussion on animal research is related to some of the hypothesis. In these studies a widely cited animal research is that in social behavior provide further evidence that dominance can promote cardiovascular disease. In male monkeys, the dominate male is put under a great deal of stress to deal with the whole group.
There are also studies that prove the difference that being submissive in personality is a way to gain more cardiovascular disease. Personality implications of adaption-innovation: v. birth order as a determination of cognitive style. The first born child is the personality type that is the child the parents learn with and from. This is the child that generally is the obedient child and is readily available to mind their parents. This particular study deals with the birth order in the cognitive abilities of the child as well as the way to solve problems by doing things differently or breaking paradigms.
When there is left brain domination then the planned approach relates to the adaption, and the right brain dominated individuals relates to innovation. The general belief is that Kirton believes that an individual’s position on the dimension of adaptation-innovation is determined by genetic component. These traits in first born children are conforming, efficient, and disciplined (Skinner & Fox-Francoeur, 2010). These individuals tend to reject new ideas, especially when the ideal is something that has been tried and true for a substantial amount of time.
The adaptation tends to be in the first born and the innovation tends to be with the later born of children. Direct and Indirect effects of Birth order on personality and Identity: Support for the null Hypothesis The hypothesis is that the proposed birth order affects the psychological outcomes through the different investments between the parents and the children and the differences in the identification from between the parent to the child (Dunkel, Harbke, & Papini, 2009).
The difference is that the hypothesis of the birth order is not simply the psychological effect of the birth order, but it is the amount of everything that the parent invests in the child that bonds the child to the parent. This also causes different types of psychological development of these children. The understanding is that the first born child will more try to attempt to win favor with the parent by identifying with the parent and then the differential investments with the other children that will not be as anxious to identify with the parents.
There are generally five accepted traits of a first born child are more conscientious, extroverted, and possibly neurotic while being less open and agreeable (Dunkel, Harbke, & Papini, 2009). Birth order or the psychological effects of birth order is not always straightforward in the findings and understandings. There are always changes made when determining the psychological effect of birth order with other changes in the child’s life such as divorce, step-siblings, half siblings, adopted siblings and spacing between siblings that would change the dynamics of the whole birth order process.
There are other factors that have to be considered in this process is that the age of the parents, education level which are both in direct relation to the maternal issues of the parents which are put upon the child. Also the full model is where the psychological effect is up to the parent’s investment and identification. The evaluation of the data is in several steps. First the information is dealing with the participant’s age, gender, and parental education.
Then the next is the evaluation of the maternal age as a potential moderator of the relation between birth order on personality information (). Then the evaluation of closeness, rejection and identification as potential mediators in how the birth order influences personality hypothesized (Dunkel, Harbke, & Papini, 2009). The determination of the age, gender and parental education is that is unlikely to influence the behaviors and psychological addressing of the closeness, rejection or identification of the children.
The closest degree of relationship is dealing with the first born and the maternal age. The indirect effects on personality and identity and there is a direct absence between birth order and any of the personality or identity. With the findings of the instance is that the children find the niche in the family with the parents ability and investment in the child from birth order to personality and identify formation. This information was stating that the psychological effects are not directly related to the birth order or the mediator that is the closeness or rejection from the mother.
The potential outcomes the more sensitive the family dynamics it is reasonable to conclude that birth order is of little importance in predicting individual differences in personality and identity (). The effects of birth order on personality traits and feelings of academic sibling rivalry have been documented with the connection to birth order and personality; however, there are still controversies over the types investigated. The first born child was the birth order contributed to why children with the same family have different personalities.
When handled appropriately the first born child can be responsible and even a protective person. When handled inappropriately the first born child could end up with criminalist type tendencies and very neurotic in their behaviors. The child that is always trying to play catch up with the eldest child is more likely to become neurotic. The first born child generally takes the parental role as the surrogate parent to their siblings, where the later of the children generally take new interests and activities within the family to prove that they are worthy of attention.
There are three different kinds of personality traits that are dealt with when dealing with birth order and that is social, academic and physical. Sibling rivalry does not usually decrease with age spacing, number of parent’s numbers or sibling within the family and the ability to develop strategies and support for children suffers with sibling rivalries (Badger & Reddy, 2009). The academic scores between the lastborn participants are tat scoring is higher than last born participants. The second is the conscientiousness scores was the first born were significantly different than that of the last born.
Then the differences in the openness to Experience and Agreeableness the last born participants scored higher than that of the first born child. Preliminary analyses show the main difference in the birth order and conscientiousness with firstborn children having higher levels of higher conscientiousness. The last children are more likely to experience the feeling of inadequacy compared to the eldest child (Badger & Reddy, 2009). The issue with the last born experiencing more academic rivalry may be explained that the youngest siblings were more likely to feel inadequate.
There has been much discussion about the damage that is done by sibling rivalry that concerns issues all the way from resentment, to no harm, to serious harm between siblings. The discussion is ongoing to determine if the birth order does actually have a considerable impact on the continued sibling rivalry. Research suggests that birth order does influence various personality traits that are continuous, such as conscientiousness, openness to new experience and agreeableness but there is much debate about sibling rivalry.
Introduction to the Commentaries and Online Forum of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment Research on personality disorders has a long history of clinical and theoretical literature on the pathogenesis and treatment of personality disorders. This area has seen a large increase in this area leading to understanding of the nature, course, correlates and consequences of personality broadly (Krueger, 2010). The research has lead to a better understanding and treatment of the personality disorders.
Narcissism is a dimensional trait should be used to help propel the research of personality disorders. The personal inflammation of the worth of oneself, power, prestige and vanity is the personality disorder that is gives the unearned sense of entitlement. These individuals have the belief that they should have extreme attention from others and have an extreme lack of empathy for others. The understanding of these personality disorders also assists with the potential of prevention and intervention programs to deal with the personality disorders (Krueger, 2010).
With the practice and realization of the different types of personality disorders there are more opportunities to work between the clinical researchers, and clinicians to maintain a dialogs to increase the understanding and treatment of these disorders. The ability to create the dialog between the clinicians and the clinical researchers that will highlight some unanswered questions that will help to work toward questions that need to be addressed in the research. The publishing of the information that is gathered would assist in helping and giving relief to the individuals that suffers of these personality disorders.
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